# Sequences

A *sequence* in Python is an ordered group of values that can be represented by a single variable. We can address individual elements or subgroups of a sequence with square brackets and possibly a *range* of indices. Square brackets hold the index or range.

```
A[0]
A[2:5]
A[i]
A[1:j+k+1]
```

Python is *zero based* (the first element is numbered 0) and the upper bound of *any* range is always *non*inclusive. Python defines several intrinsic sequences: strings, Unicode strings, lists, tuples, and a few others that we will not cover.

An *iterator* is a data type that can be traversed in order. Sequences either are directly iterators or can be readily converted to iterators.

## Sequence Operators

- Belonging
`in`

operator.`x in S`

returns True or False if x is or is not an element of the sequence S.

- Identity
`is`

operator.`S1 is S2`

returns True or False if S1 and S2 are exactly the same or different. “Exactly the same” is quite rigid in Python so check documentation for the behavior of`is`

with different objects.`in`

and`is`

can be negated.`S1 is not S2`

;`A not in B`

.

- Range extraction
`S[il:ul+1]`

starts at`il`

and goes to`ul`

. The colon is here called a range operator.

- Starting from the end
`S[-N]`

is the`N-1`

element. Thus`S[-1]`

is the last element,`S[-2]`

the next to last, and so forth.

- Concatenation (Joining)
`S1+E1`

- Repetition
`S1*N`

replicates the sequence`S1`

`N`

times.

**Exercise**

Examine the results of the following:

```
A=[1.,2,3.,4.,5,6]
1 in A
1. in A
9 in A
9 not in A
```

Remember that 1 and 1. are *different* types.

```
A[3]
B=A[:]
C=A
B is A
C is A
B is not A
```